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Aerosol, cloud composition and in-cloud reactions

In recent years, haze, which is manly related PM2.5 particles, has been a ‘hot’ research area and the top priority of the governments. We investigated aerosol formation and effect on visibility. In collaboration with Shandong University and Colorado State University, we also studied cloud/fog composition and in-cloud process. 

The key findings include: 

(1) New particle formation can occur due to high concentrations of SO2 in spite of in high aerosol sink in China;

(2) Extremely high concentrations of fine aerosol nitrates were found under conditions of insufficient ammonia, we hypothesize contribution from N2O5 hydrolysis;

(3) Cloud water composition in North China is heavily contaminated by anthropogenic emissions, and 

(4) Transport of sulfate, which is an important component of PM2.5 contributed to haze event in Beijing.


Figure 1 Daily PM2.5 mass, the major components of PM2.5, and meteorological parameters measured at Tai O (Hong Kong) during winter 2002 and relative contribution to chemical light extinction for (a) northerly, (b) northeasterly, and (c) easterly wind patterns (Cheung et al., 2005).


Figure 2. Time series of number size distribution in 10–100 nm and number concentration of sub-micro particles at Taicang near Shanghai in early summer 2015 (Gao et al, 2009).


Figure 3. Nitrate conc. as a function of excess ammonium and aerosol acidity in four Chinese cities for PM2.5 samples collected during summer 2004-5 (Pathak et al., 2009).


Figure 4. Water soluble ions of cloud water in different air-mass category collected in 2007-8 at Mt Tai. TWSI: Total Water Soluble Ions; OI: Other Ions; OA: Organic Acids. (Guo et al., 2012).


Related references:

  1. Wang, R. X., Y. Wang*, H. L. Li, M. M. Yang, L. Sun, T. Wang, and W. X. Wang. "Cloud Deposition of Pahs at Mount Lushan in Southern China." Science of the Total Environment 526 (Sep 2015): 329-37.

  2. Wang, X. M.*, T. Wang, J. Y. Zheng, M. Shao, and X. M. Wang. "Progress in Understanding the Formation of Fine Particulate Matter and Ground-Level Ozone in Pearl River Delta Region, China." Atmospheric Environment122 (Dec 2015): 808-08.

  3. Zhang, L., T. Wang*, M. Y. Lv, and Q. Zhang. "On the Severe Haze in Beijing During January 2013: Unraveling the Effects of Meteorological Anomalies with Wrf-Chem." Atmospheric Environment 104 (Mar 2015): 11-21.

  4. Gao, Y., S. C. Lai, S. C. Lee*, P. S. Yau, Y. Huang, Y. Cheng, T. Wang, Z. Xu, C. Yuan, and Y. Y. Zhang. "Optical Properties of Size-Resolved Particles at a Hong Kong Urban Site During Winter." Atmospheric Research 155 (Mar 2015): 1-12.

  5. Nie, W., A. J. Ding*, T. Wang*, V. M. Kerminen, C. George, L. K. Xue, W. X. Wang, Q. Z. Zhang, T. Petaja, X. M. Qi, X. M. Gao, X. F. Wang, X. Q. Yang, C. B. Fu, and M. Kulmala. "Polluted Dust Promotes New Particle Formation and Growth." Scientific Reports 4 (Oct 2014): 6.

  6. Zhou, S. Z., T. Wang*, Z. Wang, W. J. Li, Z. Xu, X. F. Wang, C. Yuan, C. N. Poon, P. K. K. Louie, C. W. Y. Luk, and W. X. Wang. "Photochemical Evolution of Organic Aerosols Observed in Urban Plumes from Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta of China." Atmospheric Environment 88 (May 2014): 219-29.

  7. Ding, A. J., C. B. Fu*, X. Q. Yang, J. N. Sun, T. Petaja, V. M. Kerminen, T. Wang, Y. Xie, E. Herrmann, L. F. Zheng, W. Nie, Q. Liu, X. L. Wei, and M. Kulmala*. "Intense Atmospheric Pollution Modifies Weather: A Case of Mixed Biomass Burning with Fossil Fuel Combustion Pollution in Eastern China." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, no. 20 (2013): 10545-54.

  8. Desyaterik, Y., Y. Sun, X. H. Shen, T. Y. Lee, X. F. Wang, T. Wang, and J. L. Collett*. "Speciation of "Brown" Carbon in Cloud Water Impacted by Agricultural Biomass Burning in Eastern China." Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 118, no. 13 (Jul 2013): 7389-99.

  9. Kanaya, Y.*, H. Akimoto, Z. F. Wang, P. Pochanart, K. Kawamura, Y. Liu, J. Li, Y. Komazaki, H. Irie, X. L. Pan, F. Taketani, K. Yamaji, H. Tanimoto, S. Inomata, S. Kato, J. Suthawaree, K. Okuzawa, G. Wang, S. G. Aggarwal, P. Q. Fu, T. Wang, J. Gao, Y. Wang, and G. Zhuang. "Overview of the Mount Tai Experiment (Mtx2006) in Central East China in June 2006: Studies of Significant Regional Air Pollution." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 13, no. 16 (2013): 8265-83.

  10. Wang, X. F., W. X. Wang*, L. K. Xue, X. M. Gao, W. Nie, Y. C. Yu, Y. Zhou, L. X. Yang, Q. Z. Zhang, and T. Wang. "Size-Resolved Aerosol Ionic Composition and Secondary Formation at Mount Heng in South Central China." Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering 7, no. 6 (Dec 2013): 815-26.

  11. Gao, X. M., W. Nie, L. K. Xue, T. Wang, X. F. Wang, R. Gao, W. X. Wang*, C. Yuan, J. Gao, K. P. Ravi, J. Wang, and Q. Z. Zhang. "Highly Time-Resolved Measurements of Secondary Ions in PM2.5 During the 2008 Beijing Olympics: The Impacts of Control Measures and Regional Transport." Aerosol and Air Quality Research 13, no. 1 (Feb 2013): 367-76.

  12. Guo, J., Y. Wang, X. H. Shen, Z. Wang, T. Lee, X. F. Wang, P. H. Li, M. H. Sun, J. L. Collett, W. X. Wang, and T. Wang*. "Characterization of Cloud Water Chemistry at Mount Tai, China: Seasonal Variation, Anthropogenic Impact, and Cloud Processing." Atmospheric Environment 60 (Dec 2012): 467-76.

  13. Gao, X. M., L. K. Xue, X. F. Wang, T. Wang*, C. Yuan, R. Gao, Y. Zhou, W. Nie, Q. Z. Zhang, and W. X. Wang. "Aerosol Ionic Components at Mt. Heng in Central Southern China: Abundances, Size Distribution, and Impacts of Long-Range Transport." Science of the Total Environment 433 (Sep 2012): 498-506.

  14. Gao, J., F. H. Chai*, T. Wang, S. L. Wang, and W. X. Wang. "Particle Number Size Distribution and New Particle Formation: New Characteristics During the Special Pollution Control Period in Beijing." Journal of Environmental Sciences 24, no. 1 (2012): 14-21.

  15. Wang, Z., T. Wang, R. Gao, L. K. Xue, J. Guo, Y. Zhou, W. Nie, X. F. Wang, P. J. Xu, J. A. Gao, X. H. Zhou, W. X. Wang, and Q. Z. Zhang *. "Source and Variation of Carbonaceous Aerosols at Mount Tai, North China: Results from a Semi-Continuous Instrument." Atmospheric Environment 45, no. 9 (Mar 2011): 1655-67.

  16. Wang, Y. *, J. Guo, T. Wang, A. J. Ding, J. A. Gao, Y. Zhou, J. L. Collett, and W. X. Wang. "Influence of Regional Pollution and Sandstorms on the Chemical Composition of Cloud/Fog at the Summit of Mt. Taishan in Northern China." Atmospheric Research 99, no. 3-4 (Mar 2011): 434-42.

  17. Pathak, R. K. *, T. Wang, and W. S. Wu. "Nighttime Enhancement of Pm2.5 Nitrate in Ammonia-Poor Atmospheric Conditions in Beijing and Shanghai: Plausible Contributions of Heterogeneous Hydrolysis of N2o5 and Hno3 Partitioning." Atmospheric Environment 45, no. 5 (Feb 2011): 1183-91.

  18. Pathak, R. K. *, T. Wang, K. F. Ho, and S. C. Lee. "Characteristics of Summertime Pm2.5 Organic and Elemental Carbon in Four Major Chinese Cities: Implications of High Acidity for Water-Soluble Organic Carbon (Wsoc)." Atmospheric Environment 45, no. 2 (Jan 2011): 318-25.

  19. Gao, J. *, F. H. Chai, T. Wang, and W. X. Wang. "Particle Number Size Distribution and New Particle Formation (Npf) in Lanzhou, Western China." Particuology 9, no. 6 (Dec 2011): 611-18.

  20. Zhang, M., X. M. Wang, J. M. Chen *, T. T. Cheng, T. Wang, X. Yang, Y. G. Gong, F. H. Geng, and C. H. Chen. "Physical Characterization of Aerosol Particles During the Chinese New Year's Firework Events." Atmospheric Environment 44, no. 39 (Dec 2010): 5191-98.

  21. Zhang, M., J. M. Chen *, T. Wang, T. T. Cheng, L. Lin, R. S. Bhatia, and M. Hanvey. "Chemical Characterization of Aerosols over the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean During Two Cruises in 2007 and 2008." Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 115 (Nov 2010): 15.

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  26. Meng, Z. Y. *, X. B. Xu, T. Wang, X. Y. Zhang, X. L. Yu, S. F. Wang, W. L. Lin, Y. Z. Chen, Y. A. Jiang, and X. Q. An. "Ambient Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Ammonia at Ten Background and Rural Sites in China During 2007-2008." Atmospheric Environment 44, no. 21-22 (Jul 2010): 2625-31.

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  28. Zhou, Y., T. Wang *, X. M. Gao, L. K. Xue, X. F. Wang, Z. Wang, J. A. Gao, Q. Z. Zhang, and W. X. Wang. "Continuous Observations of Water-Soluble Ions in Pm2.5 at Mount Tai (1534 Ma.S.L.) in Central-Eastern China." Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 64, no. 2-3 (Dec 2009): 107-27.

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  30. Pathak, R. K., W. S. Wu, and T. Wang *. "Summertime Pm2.5 Ionic Species in Four Major Cities of China: Nitrate Formation in an Ammonia-Deficient Atmosphere." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 9, no. 5 (2009): 1711-22.

  31. Lian, J. J., Y. Ren, J. M. Chen *, T. Wang, and T. T. Cheng. "Distribution and Source of Alkyl Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Dustfall in Shanghai, China: The Effect on the Coastal Area." Journal of Environmental Monitoring 11, no. 1 (2009): 187-92.

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  34. Kanaya, Y. *, Y. Komazaki, P. Pochanart, Y. Liu, H. Akimoto, J. Gao, T. Wang, and Z. Wang. "Mass Concentrations of Black Carbon Measured by Four Instruments in the Middle of Central East China in June 2006." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8, no. 24 (2008): 7637-49.

  35. Wang, Y. *, K. M. Wai, J. Gao, X. H. Liu, T. Wang, and W. X. Wang. "The Impacts of Anthropogenic Emissions on the Precipitation Chemistry at an Elevated Site in North-Eastern China." Atmospheric Environment 42, no. 13 (Apr 2008): 2959-70.

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